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If a metal’s heating is reduced, then the electrical conduction in it increases, i.e., its electrical resistance decreases. Resistance of some metals becomes almost zero when reaching near ultimate zero heat and then they are called superconductors.

Flow of charges within the wire
How does a metal conduct electricity? You might think that the low energy of electrons is very difficult to undergo any concrete conduction. Atoms within the solid are compiled with each other and there is very little space between them. But it has been found that electrons travel easily with an ideal solid crystal without interruption, just as they are in vacuum. However, the speed of the electron in a conductor is very different from the speed of the charges in the free space. When a permanent stream flows through any movement, then the electrons move through a fixed average runoff. For any form of copper wire, through which a small electric current is flowing, this runoff can be calculated and it is actually found to be extremely low, mms-1 grade. Then why is it that the electric bulb starts to give light on our switch? It can not be that the electric current starts only when an electron travels from one terminal of the power supply to the other terminal through its bulb, because physical drainage to electrons in a conductor wire is a very slow process. The erectile dysfunction of the electric current flowing through almost the same movement of light moves is enchanted.

Trogistors: Trojers used on radio, television, computer etc. are made from semi-conductor materials.

Integrated circuit: This is called IC briefly. Generally, there is an arrangement of IC semi-conductor tips that can perform a special type of work or can do many tasks, such as the function of the switch, the timer’s work, etc.

Electric field, development and capacitance

Coolm’s law

The attraction or repulsive force that takes place between two fixed-electric charges is inversely proportional to the square of both the proportional to the product of the quantities of the charges and the distance between them, and this force performs the corresponding work of the line combining the two charges. If two point q charge q1 and q2 are located in vacuum or air at r distance from one another, according to the rule of coolm, the force that takes place between those charges

F = kq1q2r2f = kq1q2r2
Here k is a determinant. Its value is for export or air –

K = 9 × 109 newton-meter 2 / coolom 2

Intensity of electric field

The power field at the point where the coolcom positive charge at the point of view of the electric field is called the intensity of the electric field or the electric field at that point.

E = FqE = Fq
The intensity of the electric field is expressed in Newton / Coolm and it is a vector quantity.

Electrical potential

The work done in bringing a positive test charge to a point in the electric field at the end and the charge of the value is called the electrifying potential of that point. The SI is an electrode of electric potential and the probability is a scalar quantity.

V = WQV = WQ
Voltage: If 1 joule has to be done to bring 1 coolm positive charge from infinity to any point in the electric field then the electric potential of that point is called 1 volt.


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