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electric light bulb

The invention of an electric bulb was first made by Edison. It contains a thin coil fiber of oxygen metal. This metal is vacuumed inside the bulb to prevent oxygen. Its cover is made of thin glass. Occasionally instead of nibbling completely inside the bulb, nitrogen, argon fills in it.

Tungsten metal is used for this reason, because its melting point is high. Inert gas in the bulb, therefore, fills, because the tungsten metal is evaporated at high heat in electrified and it vaporizes and sticks on the walls of the bulb, it is called blackning. After this process, the tantrum becomes weak and broken. Generally, the bulbs used in home use are burned at 220 volts.

Tube light

Some substances are such that when light of high frequency such as ultraviolet light is highlighted on them, they absorb it and emit the light of lower frequency. Such substances are called phosphors and this phenomenon is called fluorescence. In tube light, there is a long tube of glass, inside which the phosphor is coated on the walls. Inverted gas like-argon fills with mercury inside the tube. On both sides of the tube, two fibers mounted like barium oxide are attached. When the current is flowing in the fibers, the electrons are emitted in it, which are ionizing the gas in the tubes. The stream in the tube starts flowing due to the flow of ions produced by ionization. The stream located in the tube is evaporated due to heat and due to electric discharge, ultraviolet radiation is produced. When these rays fall on the Pune phosphor on the walls of the tube, they absorb them and emit light from the lower frequency. The phosphor of the tube is applied like this that the light produced from it, looks like sunlight.

Alternating current

A stream whose magnitude and direction change over time, and after a certain time, its backbone with the same magnitude in the same direction is called the alternating current.

I = I0 sin Wt

In this I0 is the peak value of the stream, it is called the dimension of the alternating current.

Turnover time

The alternate current arises in the magnetic field rotating horoscope. In one revolution of the horoscope, the stream first turns from zero to maximum, maximum to zero, and then in the opposite direction from zero to maximum and maximum to zero. This is called a cycle called the alternating current. The time required to complete the cycle is called the periodic period of the alternating current.


The cycle that the rectangular stream completes in 1 second is called the frequency of the alternating current.

The frequency is the cycle / second or Hertz. The frequency of the rectangular stream used in homes is 50 cycles / second or 50 Hz.

That is, this section changes its direction 100 times in 1 second. In practice, the square of the rectangular stream is expressed in the middle root value which is 220v.

The reversionary section of the same voltage is more dangerous than the current. The reason is that the actual value of the 220c A.C is from -311v to + 311v, whereas 220v is actually the actual value of D.C. 220V.

Unfree section

When the rectangular stream flows through the expenditure without power, then such a stream is called an empty stream. Such a stream will flow only when the value of the omega-resistance in the circuit is zero.

Choke Horoscope

Choke horoscope is such a horoscope, which allows D.C to evacuate very much from within, but inhibits the flow of A.C.. Choke horoscope is made by wrapping the copper coil of a separate iron coil on a soft iron. The value of motivation increases due to iron. This benefit is derived from the chalk horoscope, due to this, in the circuit, the expenditure of electricity is minimal. Choke horoscope is used in the homes of fluorescent tubes and radios.


This is a device that works on the principle of electromagnetic induction, which is high AC. Voltage down to the AC In voltage and low AC High voltage AC Turns into voltage. On a rectangular smooth rectangle of iron, two horoscopes are wrapped in a face-to-face transformer. A.C. The horoscope connecting the source with the primary horoscope and the outer circuit is called the second horoscope.

Dynamo or AC Generator

This is the instrument, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Dynamo works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. In this, a horoscope of the stars is rotated in the magnetic field by the water turbine or steam turbine. Hence, the dynamites send the electric current generated in the horoscope with the help of the spinal cord and the brushes in the outer circuit.

electric motor

It is a device that turns electrical energy into mechanical energy. A force works in the magnetic field in the Amachaur horoscope, then it starts rotating through the magnetic field. Thus, electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy in armature. (Electric motor does not work on electromagnetic-induction principle)


By this device, the sound energy is converted into electrical energy. This sends the sound from one place to another. Electric power transmitted by the microphone to the second place,

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